Pharmacological Options for Viral Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis Management: A Review of the Literature
Background: Viral induced hemorrhagic cystitis (VIHC) is very common among patients who become immunocompromised following organ transplantation. However, there is neither consensus on the standard of care nor clear guidelines to aid in clinical decision making when treatment VIHC. This review discusses currently available pharmacologic agents, presents investigational drug therapies, and outlines alternative treatment options that could be effective against VIHC.
Recent findings: Letermovir is a novel antiviral agent approved for CMV prophylaxis in patients post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although no studies have yet been conducted in patients with VIHC, this new antiviral agent shows promise in preventing emergence of CMV in patients after HSCT. Additionally, newer studies addressing the efficacy of brincidofovir, an experimental drug derived from cidofovir, against CMV infection may provide preliminary evidence for brincidofovir’s role in therapy and therefore warrant further investigation.
Conclusion: Polyoma BK virus (BKV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and adenovirus (ADV) are the primary culprits for HC occurrence in patients undergoing renal transplantation or allogeneic HSCT. CMV-associated HC could be prevented or treated by ganciclovir and valganciclovir because these agents’ effectiveness has been clearly established in other non-HC infections related to CMV. ADV-associated HC could be mitigated by brincidofovir and ribavirin, however the high toxicity associated with these agents may be a limiting factor for their use. BKV-associated HC is best managed by cidofovir and leflunomide, but not by fluoroquinolones. Finally, intravesicular instillation should be preferred in patients who experience toxicities associated with systemic use of antivirals.