Vol. 1 No. 1 (2018)
Review Article

Environmental Pollution and Non-Perinatal Faulty Hormonal Imprinting: A Critical Review

Csaba G
Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

Published 2018-11-02


  • Hormonal imprinting,
  • Critical periods,
  • Faulty imprinters,
  • Endocrine system,
  • Endocrine disruptors,
  • Epigenetics
  • ...More


The perinatal hormonal imprinting takes place perinatally, when the developing hormone receptors meet the hormones of the newborn and this suits the normal receptor-hormone connections for life. In this period the developmental window for imprinting is open and the receptors can be cheated by hormone-related exogeneous molecules, provoking faulty hormonal imprinting with lifelong consequences, as alteration of receptor binding capacity and hormone production, functional changes, altered sexual behavior, immunological alterations and inclination to or manifestation of diseases. However, there are other critical periods of life, when the window is open, as weaning, adolescence, regeneration in adults as well, as in continously dividing cells. The most sensitive non-perinatal critical period is the adolescence. In these periods hormone-like endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A, benzpyrene, pesticides and herbicides, soy isoflavones, medically used synthetic hormones etc) are provoking faulty hormonal imprinting with lifelong consequences. The hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process, which is inherited to the progeny cells of the organism and to the offspring of the organism, by which it can chip in the evolution. The non-perinatal faulty hormonal imprinting is justified in animal experiments and seems to be likely in case of survivors of childhood cancer treatment. Similar to the faulty perinatal hormonal imprinting, the late (non-perinatal) faulty imprinting can participate in the provocation of later manifested diseases.