Isolated Congenital Alacrima in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Isolated Congenital Alacrima in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- ASD: autism spectrum disorder; ICA: isolated congenital alacrima, AAAS: adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima; CT scan: computed tomography. ALSG: dominant aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands. OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man.
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Isolated congenital absence of lacrimal glands is a very rare condition in children, only few cases were reported so far. Its symptoms can be quite variable depending on the other associated factors like absence of accessary lacrimal glands and/or salivary glands. Children with isolated absence of lacrimal gland can have normal tear film but lack tear production upon emotional stimuli. Although, alacrima can be a part of other rare syndromes, isolated absence has never been reported in the literature in association with autism spectrum disorder. In this article we present a case of alacrima with autism spectrum disorder, never reported in the literature to our knowledge. With increasing recognition of autism spectrum disorder, it is important to report common and rare association of other clinical co-morbidities as this may influence the initial presentation posing diagnostic challenges to the diagnosticians. In this case the lack of tears with the emotional stimuli was considered exclusively caused by the lack of social-emotional reciprocity, which is one of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.