Hyperglycemia in Rural Dwellers: A cross sectional study of the Effutu Municipality, Ghana
Background: Despite increasing prevalence of hyperglycemia leading to a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the urban areas, relatively little is known about its actual prevalence and associations in the rural population. This study sought to determine hyperglycemia and its associated risk factors among rural dwellers in the Effutu Municipality.
Method: A simple-random cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to May 2015 at the Effutu Municipality, in the Central region of Ghana. One hundred and forty-nine (149) participants were enrolled onto the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on demography, alcohol use, tobacco use, educational status, visual challenges, sugary food intake and late-night eating. Blood samples were obtained for determination of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were determined and hip circumference (HC) using standard protocols. Data obtained was analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The study showed 8.1% hyperglycemia among the rural dwellers and advanced age showed significant association with glycemic status (P = 0.0376). BMI, gender, waist hip ratio, waist circumference and hip circumference were higher in hyperglycemic participants than in normogylcaemic participants, however there was no significant difference when these parameters were compared by glycemic status.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hyperglycemia in rural dwellers was 8.1% and it was significantly associated with advanced age. BMI, gender, HC, WC, WHR showed no association with hyperglycaemia.