Exhaled Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hookah Smokers: A Public Health Concern
Copyright (c) 2015 Arwa Alnashwan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Current public policy does not reflect health risk awareness associated with hookah smoking. Although, cigaretteÃ‚Â smoking has gained considerable attention accompanied by public restrictions, hookah smoking continues toÃ‚Â increase as an unrestricted, socially acceptable means of recreation. This study identified novel biomarkersÃ‚Â altered by hookah smoking compared to cigarette smoking using exhaled breath condensate collected fromÃ‚Â nonsmokers, hookah smokers and cigarette smokers pre and post smoking. Both cigarette and hookah smokers
had higher levels of inflammatory mediators suggestive of inflammasome activation as well as altered expressionÃ‚Â of miR-217 and miR-17, which are known to regulate inflammasome activation and promote oncogenesis. To
assess current public knowledge of risk factors and behaviors associated with hookah smoking, and if knowledgeÃ‚Â of hookah dangers would influence smoking behaviors, the experimental data were integrated into a surveyÃ‚Â emphasizing cancer risk associated with hookah smoking. Survey results indicated that 70% of study participantsÃ‚Â were encouraged to abstain from hookah smoking after gaining knowledge of cancer risk associated with hookah.Ã‚Â The identification of behaviors associated with hookah smoking and novel biomarkers of health risk may influence
its public health regulation and facilitate community health education.