Ductus Venosus Agenesis and Fetal Malformations: Report of Four Cases
- Ductus venosus,
- Fetal malformations,
Copyright (c) 2018 Pacheco et al.
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Background: The agenesis of the ductus venosus (DVA) is a rare condition with a variable prognosis that relies partly on the presence of associated conditions. Therefore, the prenatal evaluation should include a careful examination of fetal circulation, particularly the umbilical and portal venous malformations.
Methods: In this study we describe four cases of DVA diagnosed at our institution. For each case, we access the patient’s files in order to extract the following information: gestational age, umbilical vein connection, pre-natal imaging findings, gestational age at delivery or at pregnancy termination, fetal outcomes, post-natal imaging findings, post-mortem findings and karyotype.
Results: From the four cases included, two were diagnosed in the first trimester and the other two cases in the second trimester of gestation. Prenatal ultrasound studies revealed an intrahepatic shunt in one case and an extrahepatic shunt in three cases. In one case, the karyotype was not performed, whereas the other three had a normal karyotype. Cardiac anomalies were found in three of the four fetuses. All but one case presented with extracardiac abnormalities. None of the cases developed hydrops. Two cases are currently alive and well, one termination of pregnancy occurred at 25 weeks of gestation and one case died at 14 days during surgical correction of a complex cardiac malformation.
Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of different and important findings during the fetal examination, which can be indicative of a DVA, and, when suspected, serial revaluations should be scheduled in order to identify any malformation.