Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis that is associated with the NMDA receptor and has a good response to treatment. However, only a small number of cases related teratoma has been reported in literature. Here we report a case of teratoma-associated anti-NMDAR encephalitis. A 25-year-old woman with the presentation of fever for 20 days and psychiatric symptoms for 9 days was admitted to the hospital. This patient progressed to a minimally conscious state consistent with encephalitis. Considering the possibility of autoantibody-mediated encephalitis, laboratory tests were undertaken to observe the anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, which confirmed the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Furthermore, gynecological ultrasound investigation detected teratoma in the left ovary. After resection of the teratoma with Laparoscopic adnexectom and treatment with immunosuppressive therapy, the patient recovered gradually and was discharged one month after the operation. Due to the lack of clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the disease is still difficult to diagnose because of its vague manifestations. For the further study, the clinic data of one case of teratoma-related anti-NMDAR encephalitis was analyzed and the relevant literatures were reviewed.