Concise Review on the Mechanisms and Clinical Utilities of Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Regenerative Medicine
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multi-potent stem cells with multi-directional differentiation potential. The term MSPCs refers to mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells, which may exhibit full stem cell functions. MSPCs can be obtained from many tissue sources, such as adipose tissue, umbilical cord and bone marrow, etc. Studies show that MSPCs reside in the perivascular niche that is proximal to blood vessels. MSPCs are also capable of exerting their potential of homing and migration across the endothelium barrier toward lesion sites for repairing or regeneration. MSPCs can be stimulated to release a broad spectrum of bioactive factors including inhibitory factors and growth factors, and also express certain surface molecules, actions of which are relevant to a wide range of clinical applications such as the treatment of arthritis and diabetes mellitus. This review provides details of how MSPCs and MSPC-derived factors can potentially be used for homing and repairing mechanisms, and ultimately be applied in clinical settings.