The Prevalence Of Thyroid Dysfunction In Saudi Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Thyroid dysfunction in type 1 diabetes in Saudi Arabia
- Thyroid dysfunction,
- Type 1 Diabetes,
- Saudi Arabia
Copyright (c) 2019 Aljabri KS.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Background and objective It is well known that diabetics have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders. We therefore conducted this study to assess the prevalence of thyroid dyscunction among patients with T1DM. Design A cross-sectional study was performed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2018 to March 2019. We included 105 (51.0%) patients with T1DM and 101 (49.0%) patients matched for age and sex with no history of T1DM were analyzed as the control group. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4) and HbA1c were measured.
Results A total of 105 (51%) patients with T1DM and 101 (49%) patients with no history of T1DM as control were included in this study. Average age of patients with of T1DM compared to patients without T1DM was statistically non-significant (15.7±2.2 and 16.2±1.7 respectively, p=0.06). Mean TSH was statistically significant higher in patients with than without T1DM (3.9±8.1 vs. 2.1±1.5 respectively) p=0.03. There was a statistically significant higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among T1DM in comparison to control group (21% vs. 6.9%) p=0.005.Compared patients with and without T1DM, there was higher prevalence of clinical (31.8% vs. 28.6%) and subclinical (59.1% vs. 42.9%) hypothyroidism and clinical (0% vs. 14.3%) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (9.1% vs. 14.3%), p=0.03. Average age of patients with of T1DM with thyroid dysfunction than patients without thyroid dysfunction was statistically non-significant (15.6 ±2.5 and 15.7 ±2.1 respectively, p=0.9). Moreover, there was statistically non-significant difference between age and subtypes of thyroid dysfunction. Moreover, there was statistically non-significant more frequent of females compared to males in patients with T1DM with thyroid dysfunction (68.2% vs. 31.8%) p=0.3. Mean HbA1c of patients with of T1DM with thyroid dysfunction than patients without thyroid dysfunction was statistically non-significant different (8.6 ±2.6 and 8.5 ±1.7 respectively, p=0.8). In addition, there was statistically non-significant difference between HbA1c and subtypes of thyroid dysfunction.
Conclusion Thyroid dysfunction particularly hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in a cohort of Saudis with T1DM.