Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019): current Issue
Research Article

The critical functions of nicotine and cotinine in panmasala users contribute to the oxidative stress in saliva and urine: Panmasala effect on oxidative stress in saliva and urine

Dr Narendra Maddu
Sri Krishnadevaraya University

Published 2019-10-02


  • Panmasala,
  • Nicotine,
  • Cotinine,
  • Saliva,
  • Urine,
  • Oxidative stress
  • ...More


Panmasala is one of the form of Smokeless Tobacco product (SLT) and is available in different brands like
Rajnignadha, Vimal, Hira, and RMD (Rasikala Manikchand Dhariwal) manufactured by various smokeless tobacco industries.

Aim: Smokeless is a type of tobacco and acts as an inducer for the formation of oxidative stress in saliva and urine.

Materials and methods: People consumed specifically rajnigandha panmasala with BABA 120 chewing tobacco for a period of 4 years. The concentrations of nicotine and cotinine are evaluated by the HPLC technique, levels of nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, creatinine, and status of antioxidant enzymes were measured by the spectrophotometric method. The urea, uric acid, albumins, and total proteins were determined by kit methods and the remaining variables were calculated by the respective formula.

Results: Our results reported that significantly increased concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in saliva and urine of smokeless tobacco users. The nitroxdative stress includes higher levels of nitric oxide (Nitrites and nitrates) and lipid peroxidation was exhibited in the saliva and urine of panmasala users. The significant decrease in concentrations of glutathione, uric acid, and antioxidant enzymes was observed in the saliva of experimental subjects. The smokeless tobacco users have shown significantly decreased levels of uric acid and creatinine in the urine.

Conclusion: Panmasala is more toxic and harmful than any smokeless tobacco product and acts as greater risk of an inducer of oxidative stress in saliva and urine of SLT users for prolonged consumption.