Abstract

Most 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs) expressed on adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons contain the edited form of GluA2 (Q607R) and are thus impermeable to Ca2+/Zn2+ entry.  Following ischemic injury, these receptors undergo a subunit composition change, switching from a GluA2-containing Ca2+/Zn2+-impermeable AMPAR to a GluA2-lacking Ca2+/Zn2+-permeable AMPAR. Recent studies indicate that an oxidative stress signaling pathway is responsible for the I/R-induced changes in AMPAR subunit composition.  Studies suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase), a superoxide generator, is the source that initiates the oxidative stress-signaling cascade during post-ischemic reperfusion. The objective of the present study was to determine if suppression of NADPH oxidase activity prevents the increase in phosphorylation and subsequent internalization of the GluA2 AMPAR subunit during reperfusion of post-ischemic hippocampal slices. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure of adult rat hippocampal slices to oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) results in an increase in Ser880 phosphorylation of the GluA2 subunit.  The increase in Ser880 phosphorylation resulted in the dissociation of GluA2 from the scaffolding proteins Glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) and AMPAR binding protein (ABP), thus enabling the association of GluA2 with protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1). OGD/R also resulted in an increase in the association of activated protein kinase C ? (PKC?) with PICK1. We have found that pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin diminishes the OGD/R-induced increase in activated PKC? association with PICK1 and subsequent Ser880 phosphorylation of GluA2. Suppression of NADPH oxidase activity also blunted OGD/R-induced decreased association of GluA2 with the scaffolding proteins GRIP1 and ABP.  Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which regulates PKC? activity by dephosphorylating the kinase, was inactivated by OGD/R-induced increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of the phosphatase (Y307). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity ameliorated OGD/R-induced PP2A phosphorylation and inactivation. Our findings are consistent with a model of OGD/R-induced Ser880 phosphorylation of GluA2 that implicates NADPH oxidase mediated inactivation of PP2A and sustained PKC? phosphorylation of GluA2.