Bone Mineral Density in Female Professional Athletes Involved in Weight Bearing and Non-Weight Bearing Exercises
AbstractThe present study was designed to assess the effect of different types of exercises on the BMD values in female professional atheletes. The case control study was conducted on 59 healthy female atheletes aged between 20 and 30 years who were a member of the countryÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s national teams in the past three years. They were involved in weight-bearing (soccer and golf) and non-weight bearing (swimming and rowing) exercises. The BMD values of the L1Ã¢â‚¬â€œL4 anteroposterior lumbar spine and femoral subregions were recorded using a DXA bone densitometer and compared to that of a group of age and sex-matched non-athletes. Mean BMD values at all the studied sites were highest among the footballers and lowest among the golf players. Except for the spine, a significant difference between the BMD values at all the studied sites. As for spine, a significant difference was only seen in the BMD values of the footballers and that of golf players. There was no significant difference between the BMD values of the controls and those involved in either weight bearing or non-weight bearing exercises. The considerable difference noted in BMD values at different sites in footballers and golf playersÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ points out the great influence of weight-bearing exercises on the bone structure. The bonesÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ response to exercises is site-specific. High-impact weight bearing exercises stressing bones in a variety of directions are more effective in improving BMD values. Athletes involved in non-weight bearing exercises should do certain weight-bearing exercises to strengthen their bones.