Abstract

This literature review explores recent and past investigations carried out by researchers in various settings pertaining to the orthopaedic field of medicine, in attempts to show a possible connection between the deficit in sex hormone levels and the potential consequences it brings about on orthopaedic health, namely, osteoarthritis. There is some evidence in the literature suggesting that suboptimal concentrations of steroid hormones can negatively impact bone health, making it more susceptible to physical injury, especially when the hormone in question is estrogen. Several studies have shown that this biomolecule is quite essential to human health due to its effects on not only sexual development and function but also on bone metabolism, in both men and women. Investigations revolving around estrogenic compounds reveal their significance in physical capacitation of adult individuals, since it has already been found that estrogens play a pivotal role on bone maintenance by directly interacting with osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and even T-cells, to name a few examples. Large scale studies also bring up plausible evidence by evaluating the links between measured sex steroid concentrations and incidence of osteoarthritic joint replacement in adults. Taking that into consideration, there is sufficient motivation to look into hormonal fluctuation in adult individuals, calling for suitable medical intervention in order to keep a patient’s health under control, avoiding and even treating the detrimental effects caused by the deficiency of certain steroid hormones.