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The human immune system plays a cardinal role in host defense against the assault of foreign agents, particularly that from microbes, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses of which human cytomegalovirus serves as an example. Immune reactions consist of inflammation, however, either hyper or hypo inflammatory reaction results in diseases. Additionally, host immunity operates a dynamic balance of symbiosis among host and microbes, at both intracellular and extracellular levels. We aim to harness the knowledge and technology in studying this ubiquitous opportunistic virus, its interplay with the host immune system, evading immune response, exacerbating inflammation, and causing damage in host whereas in symbiosis with the host DNA genome. We will address how we define the tipping point of immunity and inflammation, via study the mechanism of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, as well as the mechanism of this diminutive mega creature causing cardiovascular injury in immune competent individuals, to develop and comply an immunomodulation, to reprogram patient immunity against the viral infections, including immunity against human immunodeficiency virus, towards a cure of AIDS.
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