Abstract

Protein malnutrition during gestation and lactation (perinatal period) has been identified as one of the main causes forthe development of cardiovascular disorders, and when associated with a hyperlipidic diet (HL) it seems to accentuatethe effects caused by malnutrition. Thus, we propose to evaluate the short-term effects of the HL on biochemical variablesand analysis of gene expression in the offspring of rats coming from mothers subjected to protein malnutrition during theperinatal period. Male Wistar rats were used from dams subjected to normo- (NP: 19% protein, 62.4% carbohydrate and 7.3%lipid) or low protein diet (LP: 9.6% protein, 75.1% carbohydrate and 7.5% lipid) during perinatal period. After weaning (day21), offspring received NP or HL diet until day 30 [HL: 20% protein, 32% lipids (with respect to fatty acids: 68% saturated,16% monounsaturated, 16% polyunsaturated) and 49% carbohydrate]. Thus, we obtained the following post-weaning groups:NP-NP, NP-HL, LP-NP and LP-HL. Serum levels of total proteins, albumin, total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides wereanalyzed at the postnatal day 21 and 30. At 30-d-old, part of the animals were sacrificed for nucleus the solitary tract (NTS)collection and subsequent analysis by Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-Time PCR System, using RQ- relative quantification of thegene expression of HIF (transcription factor related to cardiovascular risk factor), mTOR and AKT (cellular energy indicators).All protocols and procedures were approved by the Ethic Committee for Animal Use (CEUA). The results are expressed as mean± SEM and were analyzed using GraphPadPrism® version 5 through Unpaired Student's t test and significance level of p<0.05.The analysis of the biochemical parameters of the animals at 21d-old (weaning), showed that protein malnutrition (LP group)reduced serum levels of total proteins (NP: 5.01 ± 0.06, n=19 vs. LP: 4.67 ±0.07 g/dL, n=24, p=0.0014) e albumin (NP: 3.97±0.05,n=19 vs. LP: 3.37±0.03 g/dL, n=24, p<0.0001) and increased cholesterol levels (NP: 130.5 ± 3.6 , n= 19 vs. LP: 152.5 ± 6.4 mg/dL,n= 24, p=0.0082). Following short-term consumption of HL (postnatal day 21 until 30), it was demonstrated that the albuminand total protein contents of LP animals were normalized. However, the LP-HL group had greater levels of triglycerides (LP-NP:143.7 ± 15.5, n=10 vs. LP-HL: 219.3 ± 26.7 mg/dL, n=12, p=0.001) and of cholesterol (LP-NP: 110.8 ± 4.3, n=10 vs. LP-HL: 120.5± 3.3 mg/dL, n=12, p=0.001) when compared to the LP.NP. Regarding NTS gene expression, no differences were noted in thelevels of HIF. On the other hand, HL post-weaning increased the NTS gene expression of mTOR and AKT in offspring subjectedto maternal protein undernutrition (mTor: NP, 0.56±0.02 vs. LP, 0.88 ± 0.06, n= 6, p= 0.006 RQ; AKT: NP, 0.66±0.07 vs. LP.HL:1.11±0.11, n=6, p= 0.008 RQ). Our data suggested that short-term effects of HL intake by the rat offspring subjected to maternalprotein undernutrition may alter the lipid metabolism and can modify cell signaling of energy availability in the NTS.Biography:Simões-Alves, A.C. is nurse at the Federal University of Pernambuco (CAV-UFPE). Master in Nutrition, Physical Activity andPhenotypic Plasticity at the CAV-UFPE. She is currently PhD student in the Graduate Program in Nutrition at the UFPE. Sheha experience in the field of biochemistry, with emphasis on mitochondrial bioenergetics, cell metabolism and physiology, with emphasis on cardiovascular function and metabolism, acting mainly on the mechanisms underlying the development ofcardiometabolic diseases. It is currently studying the repercussions of protein malnutrition in the gestation and lactation period andof western diets during adulthood on cardiometabolic parameters.