The data of the literature on the structure and physiology of the vitreous body and the retina in normal and pathological conditions are presented. The mechanism of vitreous detachment and its role in the development of vitreoretinal proliferation are described. Described adren-choline-peptide and NO-ergic mechanisms in signal transduction of the vitreous body and retina. Pharmacological and surgical methods of treatment of vitreoretinal proliferation are briefly described.